Gasoline Direct Injection

Gasoline Direct Injection
  • Function
    Directly to more power, more efficiency, more driving dynamics
     

    In 1951, Bosch launched gasoline direct injection and has been the technology trailblazer ever since. As result of increasing motorized mobility worldwide, coupled with the desire for lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions, gasoline direct injection is still regarded today as a key technology with huge potential. According to forecasts, a quarter of all vehicles will be equipped with gasoline direct injection in 2020.

    Unlike with gasoline port fuel injection, the air/fuel mixture is formed directly in the combustion chamber in engines with gasoline direct injection. Pure fresh air enters via the intake valve. The fuel is injected into this airstream at high pressure (up to 200 bar). The result is an optimum swirl effect and improved cooling of the combustion chamber, paving the way for higher compression and, in turn, greater efficiency – leading to a reduction in fuel consumption and a substantial improvement in driving dynamics. This makes gasoline direct injection the ideal technology for downsizing and turbocharging.

    Bosch’s gasoline direct injection portfolio includes the functional areas of fuel supply, fuel injection, air management, ignition, engine management, and exhaust-gas treatment.

     
  • Customer benefits
    The key technology for greater efficiency and dynamism: Bosch gasoline direct injection
     

    As the pioneer with over 60 years’ experience in gasoline direct injection, Bosch remains the innovation driver for this powertrain system. With system innovations such as scavenging and controlled valve operation CVO, Bosch boasts future technologies ready for volume production that can be rolled out globally.

    Bosch gasoline direct injection is a key to clean and economical engines with lower fuel consumption and emission values coupled with enhanced driving dynamics.

    Compared with gasoline port fuel injection, Bosch gasoline direct injection delivers:

    • Up to 15% lower fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions with the same power output
    • Enhanced responsiveness and greater driving dynamics in combination with downsizing, turbocharging, and scavenging
    • Torque increased by up to 50% at low engine speeds
    • Higher specific power output in the range of 60 - 100 kW/l thanks to increased boost pressure combined with downsizing
    • Higher downsizing ratios (with cylinder reduction) of up to 50% in future. With extreme downsizing (from 45% displacement reduction) good driving dynamics should be ensured through supporting measures in the area of transmission and electrification
     
  • Innovation packages
    Downsizing, turbocharging, scavenging, controlled valve operation (CVO)
     

    Smaller engines, greater dynamics, lower fuel consumption: downsizing and turbocharging

    Gasoline direct injection with turbocharging forms the basis for innovative downsizing concepts. For engines with a specific power output of 60 to 100 kW/l engine displacement, fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions can be reduced by some 15% – with substantially improved driving dynamics. At the same time, there is an improvement in responsiveness, map utilization, and transient behavior during start-up, i.e. the load-change characteristics at high engine speeds. In conjunction with widely spaced transmissions and downspeeding, downsizing of 50% plus is also possible.

    Exhaust-gas turbochargers pump fresh air into the combustion chamber using overpressure, enabling more air-fuel mixture to be burned with the same cylinder volume, and power output and torque to be increased sharply. This means a smaller engine can generate the same power output as an engine with a much larger displacement. The fuel consumption saving is primarily achieved by the smaller engine’s ability to operate in the optimum efficiency range for more of the time. In addition, exhaust-gas turbochargers are driven solely by the flow of exhaust gas and do not consume any mechanical drive energy.

    No turbo lag, more dynamics: scavenging

    Turbochargers are driven by the flow of exhaust gas and achieve the standard boost pressure only from a certain engine speed. At low engine speeds, the flow of exhaust gas is weak and the compressor cannot compress the air sufficiently. The engine power output is correspondingly low – an effect dubbed “turbo lag”. Scavenging, which was developed by Bosch, eliminates the turbo lag through an intelligent combination of gasoline direct injection, variable camshaft timing control, and turbocharging.

    With scavenging the valves are timed so that the intake and exhaust valves briefly open simultaneously in the low engine speed range. Between the engine’s intake and exhaust side there is a dynamic pressure differential; this draws larger volumes of fresh air into the combustion chamber and purges the residual gases more efficiently. Bosch Motronic boosts this effect by means of variable camshaft timing control with optimized valve timing. Early closing of the intake valve at low engine speeds and later injection produces a substantial increase in charging since less air is pushed back into the intake port. The higher mass throughput moves the exhaust-gas turbocharger to a higher boost speed level with much higher boost pressure. Scavenging can be used to increase torque at full load below 2,000 rpm by up to 50% so that the responsiveness is on a par with large displacement engines. Compared with intake manifold engines with the same power output, fuel consumption can be reduced by up to 15%.

    Highest precision, constantly: controlled valve operation (CVO)

    State-of-the-art combustion processes are characterized by high pressure even under partial load and multiple injections for optimized mixture formation. This translates into ultra-short injection times and increased metering tolerances.

    Thanks to Bosch’s CVO mechatronic system solution, the precision of the gasoline direct injection is significantly increased and is maintained throughout the fuel injector’s entire service life. The basis for this solution is provided by the consummate interplay between Bosch electronic control unit and Bosch high-pressure injector, which form a closed loop. Unlike conventional precontrolled injection, with CVO the electronic control unit records the triggering signal during the injection and determines the optimum timing for opening and closing the valve needles. This enables the electronic control unit to calculate individually the actual injection quantities of each injector and even allows minute quantities of fuel to be injected with minimal tolerances. The combustion process remains stable and particulate emissions are reduced, especially during the catalytic converter warm-up phase. Bosch offers a solution that is as innovative as it is cost-effective in the shape of CVO to meet future emissions standards.

     
  • Automotive competence
    Comprehensive portfolio and extensive expertise

    When working with automakers, Bosch not only brings to the table its comprehensive lineup of technology products and services but also extensive experience and wide-ranging expertise in gasoline direct injection, from components to integrated complete solutions. Within the space of just a year, the number of fuel injectors manufactured in Bosch’s global production network doubled from 25 million to 50 million and the number of high-pressure pumps from 5 million to 10 million.

    System and network competence

    As a system provider, Bosch knows the technical requirements, relationships, and dependencies when networking the gasoline direct injection drive system. From a technical perspective, the key criterion is the ability to apply and integrate the drive technology exactly to the customer’s system requirements. When it comes to cost-effectiveness, the aim is to reduce the cost of development and testing, get products ready for series production earlier, and thus significantly reduce overall costs.

    Innovation driver and technology leader

    Bosch is a trailblazer for gasoline direct injection. Bosch initially marketed this technology in 1951 for the two-stroke engine in the “Gutbrod Superior” compact car; gasoline direct injection made its debut for four-stroke engines in the legendary Mercedes-Benz 300 SL “Gullwing” in 1954.

    Bosch’s firm commitment to the research and development of advanced gasoline direct injection produces a constant stream of powertrains with enhanced characteristics. Bosch innovations such as CVO controlled valve operation and laser-drilled spray holes pave the way for innovative engine concepts offering high potential savings in fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions while optimizing the engine’s power output.

    Ensuring quality and reliability

    The top-class quality of Bosch products provides the basis for vehicles with state-of-the-art technology including gasoline direct injection. The Bosch system’s precision, durability, and service life designed for 240,000 km ensure reliability and longevity. Thanks to the use of stainless steel, today’s components in gasoline direct injection boast high fuel compatibility, which makes them suited to global applications.

    Global presence

    Thanks to its development and production locations, Bosch boasts a global presence for gasoline direct injection and is familiar with the specific requirements of individual markets. This proximity to automakers is unrivalled in the automotive components industry and makes for close, flexible collaboration. Short paths save time and money.

    Locations in Europe: Bamberg (Germany), Nuremberg (Germany), Stuttgart (Germany)

    Locations in Asia: Wuxi (China), Shanghai (China), Daejeon (Korea), Yokohama (Japan), Bursa (Turkey)

    Locations in North America: Farmington Hills (USA), Charleston (USA), San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    Long-term partnership

    As a solid, reliable partner to the automotive industry, Bosch offers end-to-end support throughout the entire lifecycle of vehicles: from the design and development of new gasoline direct injection drives to volume production. And beyond for workshop diagnostics and spare parts supply. Having global logistics and large-scale series production on all continents ensures products can be shipped to customers quickly. Local contacts, in the Bosch sales offices or as a resident engineer on the automaker’s premises, provide close customer support on an end-to-end basis.

     
     
 
 

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